There are a number of matters that are excluded (the “Excluded Matters“) from the application of the ETA. This includes, amongst others, the execution of a will, bills of exchange, bills of lading, the creation of a declaration of trust, power of attorney and any contract for the sale of immovable property.
These exclusions mean that, among other things, parties cannot rely on the ETA to satisfy the legal requirements of writing or signatures in relation to the Excluded Matters. It is therefore recommended that any document or transaction that falls within the scope of Excluded Matters should be signed using a “wet-ink” signature.
That being said, the Infocomm Media Development Authority Singapore (“IMDA“) is in the process of reviewing the ETA, to ensure that the ETA continues to be progressive and to strengthen Singapore’s position as a hub for electronic transactions.
One of the proposed amendments is to remove most business-related transactions while retaining personal or familial transactions in the list of Excluded Matters.
On 4 January 2021, the Electronic Transactions (Amendment) Bill (“Amendment Bill”) was introduced to Parliament. The Amendment Bill seeks to adopt (with modifications) the UNCITRAL Model Law on Electronic Transferable Records (2017), which enables the use of electronic transferable records both domestically and across borders, such as bills of exchange, bills of lading, promissory notes and warehouse receipts etc. Consequently, the Amendment Bill seeks to, among other changes, remove such documents from the list of Excluded Matters.
It is noted that the Amendment Bill is part of a wider and ongoing initiative by the Singapore Government to review and support the electronisation of various types of instruments or transactions. We can expect further amendments to the ETA when the legislative and administrative frameworks supporting the electronisation of such instruments or transactions are ready to be enacted or implemented.